A large document on thick paper (370 × 247 mm), on official printed letterhead ('Il Duce', with a crest); folded once horizontally and vertically; a few small marks, creases and two tiny sealed tears near the edges, well clear of the (slightly smudged) signature; overall in very good condition. A typescript translation of the document is supplied.
An apposite document relating to Mussolini, who was wounded on active service in the First World War. 'After the war, with the Socialist Party closed to him and Communism threatening disruption, he founded (1919) the first "Fascio di Combattimento", nominally to serve the cause of the neglected ex-servicemen. This proved the starting point of "Fascism". Mussolini took over the nationalist theme and the theatrical equipment (black shirts, banners etc.) from d'Annunzio and was quick to realise that by turning his gangs against the communists he would win government toleration and much outside support' ('Dictionary of World Biography'). He was prime minister from 1922-43, and dictator from 1925 until his summary execution by partisans in April 1945. Provenance: Collection of The Hon Barry Jones AC.
Provenance: Collection of The Hon Barry Jones AC.